Knowledge Centre

1. What does the term 'Leasehold Property' mean?

When a piece of property is given or ‘leased’ to an individual (known as the ‘Lessee’) for a stipulated period of time, by the owner of the property (known as the ‘Lessor’), the property is referred to as Leasehold Property. A certain amount is fixed by the Lessor to be paid as lease premium and annual lease. The land ownership rights remain with the Lessor. Transfer of property requires prior permission.

2. What does the term ‘Freehold Property’ mean?

When ownership rights for a piece of property are given to the purchaser for a price, that property is referred to as Freehold Property. Unlike in the case of leasehold property, no annual lease charges need to be paid and the freehold property can be registered and / or transferred in part(s).

3. What constitutes conclusion of sale of a property?

An agreement of sale, coupled with actual possession of the property would be considered as a conclusion of the sale. Usually, the entire amount is paid at the time of handing over possession.

1.What is a Section 8 company as per the Companies Act, 2013?

The Companies Act defines a Section 8 company as one whose objectives is to promote fields of arts, commerce, science, research, education, sports, charity, social welfare, religion, environment protection, or other similar objectives. These companies also apply their profits towards the furtherance of their cause and do not pay any dividend to their members. These companies were previously defined under Section 25 of Companies Act, 1956 with more or less the same provisions. The new Act has, however, prescribed more objectives that Section 8 companies can have. Famous examples of Section 8 companies include Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). The objective of these companies is facilitating the growth of trade and commerce and India.

2.What is a Partnership Deed?

Partnership deed is a partnership agreement between the partners of the firm which outlines the terms and conditions of the partnership between the partners. The purpose of a partnership deed is to provide clear understanding of the roles of each partner, which ensures smooth running of the operations of the firm.

1. What is Commercial Dispute?

A Commercial dispute is a business dispute. It means a dispute between two businesses or dispute between business and customer/clients. The dispute in enforcement and interpretation of documents in ordinary transactions of merchants, bankers, financiers and traders. Export or import of merchandise or services.

2.What are Commercial Courts?

Commercial Courts are defined in Section 2(b) of the Commercial Courts Act, 2015. Any court for the purpose of exercising the powers under the Commercial Courts Act, 2015 which is constituted by State Government at the district level, may after consultation with the concerned High Court by notification. Section 3(3) of the Act, the State governments with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court appoint one or more persons having experience in commercial disputes to be the judges of Commercial court.

3.What is NCLT?

The National Company Law Tribunal, can be defined as a quasi-judicial body which was established by the Indian Government to settle disputes arising between civil corporations. The NCLT came to being as a result of the Eradi Committee. NCLT was intended to be introduced in the Indian legal system in 2002 under the framework of Companies Act, 1956 however, due to the litigation with respect to the constitutional validity of NCLT which went for over 10 years, therefore, it was notified under the Companies Act, 2013.

1.Does a Will need registration?

The registration of a document provides evidence that the proper parties had appeared before the registering officers and the latter had attested the same after ascertaining their identity. In India, the registration of Wills is not compulsory even if it relates to immoveable property. The non-registration of a Will does not lead to any inference against the genuineness of a Will. In other words, registration therefore does not give any special sanctity to the Will though registration of the Will by the testator himself evidences the genuineness of the Will.

2.Can a Will be revoked?

A Will can be revoked, changed or altered by the testator at any time when he is competent to dispose of his property. A person can revoke, change or alter his Will by executing a new Will, revoking the earlier Will, registering the new Will (if the old Will is registered), destroying the old Will or by making a codicil. On the marriage of a Parsi or a Christian testator, his/her Will stands revoked, this however does not apply to Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists.

1.What is divorce without mutual consent?

In case of a contested divorce, there are specific grounds on which the petition can be made. It isn’t as if a husband or wife can simply ask for a divorce without stating a reason. The reasons are as follows, though some are not applicable to all religions.


Cruelty may be physical or mental cruelty. According to the Hindu Divorce Laws in India, if one spouse has a reasonable apprehension in the mind that the other spouse’s conduct is likely to be injurious or harmful, then there is sufficient ground for obtaining divorce due to cruelty by the spouse.


In India, a man that commits adultery (i.e. has consensual sexual intercourse outside of marriage) can be charged with a criminal offence. The wife may, of course, file for divorce as a civil remedy. If, on the other hand, a wife commits adultery, she cannot be charged with a criminal offence, though the husband can seek prosecution of the adulterer male for adultery.


One spouse deserting the other without reasonable cause (cruelty, for example) is a reason for divorce. However, the spouse who abandons the other should intend to desert and there should be proof of it. As per Hindu laws, the desertion should have lasted at least two continuous years. Christians, however, will not be able to file a divorce petition solely for this reason.


Divorce can be sought by a spouse if the other spouse converts to another religion. This reason does not require any time to have passed before divorce can be filed.

5.Mental Disorder

If the spouse is incapable of performing the normal duties required in a marriage on account of mental illness, divorce can be sought. If the mental illness is to such an extent that the normal duties of married life cannot be performed.

6.Communicable Disease

If the spouse suffers from a communicable disease, such as HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhoea or a virulent and incurable form of leprosy, the Hindu Divorce Law in India say that the other party can obtain a divorce.

7.Renunciation of the World

If the spouse renounces his/her married life and opts for sannyasa, the aggrieved spouse may obtain a divorce.

8.Presumption of Death

If the spouse has not been heard of as being alive for a period of at least seven years, by such individuals who would have heard about such spouse, if he or she were alive, then the spouse who is alive can obtain a judicial decree of divorce.

1.What are the rights of a consumer under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986?

Right to Safety

Means right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services, which are hazardous to life and property. The purchased goods and services availed of should not only meet their immediate needs, but also fulfil long term interests.
Before purchasing, consumers should insist on the quality of the products as well as on the guarantee of the products and services. They should preferably purchase quality marked products such as ISI, AGMARK, etc.

Right to be Informed

Means right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
Consumer should insist on getting all the information about the product or service before making a choice or a decision. This will enable him to act wisely and responsibly and also enable him to desist from falling prey to high pressure selling techniques.

Right to Choose

Means right to be assured, wherever possible of access to variety of goods and services at competitive price. In case of monopolies, it means right to be assured of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price. It also includes right to basic goods and services. This is because unrestricted right of the minority to choose can mean a denial for the majority of its fair share. This right can be better exercised in a competitive market where a variety of goods are available at competitive prices.

Right to be Heard

Means that consumer’s interests will receive due consideration at appropriate forums. It also includes right to be represented in various forums formed to consider the consumer’s welfare.
The Consumers should form non-political and non-commercial consumer organizations which can be given representation in various committees formed by the Government and other bodies in matters relating to consumers.

Right to Seek redressal

MMeans right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers. It also includes right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances of the consumer.
Consumers must make complaint for their genuine grievances. Many a times their complaint may be of small value but its impact on the society as a whole may be very large. They can also take the help of consumer organisations in seeking redressal of their grievances.

Right to Consumer Education

Means the right to acquire the knowledge and skill to be an informed consumer throughout life. Ignorance of consumers, particularly of rural consumers, is mainly responsible for their exploitation. They should know their rights and must exercise them. Only then real consumer protection can be achieved with success.

1.What are the subject matters protected under the Copyright Act 1957?

All subject matters protected by copyright are called works. Thus, according to Section 13 of The Copyright Act 1957, it may be subjected for the following works:

1. Original Literary Work

2. Original Dramatic work

3. Original Musical work

4. Original Artistic Work

5. Cinematography films

6. Sound recordings

1.When will the Employee State Insurance Act, 1948 will be applicable?

The ESI scheme is applicable to all factories and other establishments as defined in the Act with 10 or more persons employed in such establishment and the beneficiaries’ monthly wage does not exceed Rs 21,000 are covered under the scheme.

2. What is the applicability of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948?
The Minimum of Wages Act applies to the following entities:

a) It applies to all over India except Jammu and Kashmir.
b) It applies to any employment if it employs 1000 employees in the respective state.
c) It does not apply to any employees in any undertaking owned by the Central government or of the federal railway, except with the consent of the central government.

3.What is Labour Court?

Individual workmen raises Industrial dispute Under Section7 of Industrial Dispute Act 1947 . Which says that the appropriate government is empowered to establish one or more Labour Courts. Its function is to settle industrial disputes concerning any matter specified in the second schedule. Labour Court shall hold its proceedings within the specified period and shall submit its award to the Government. Such award must be in writing and signed by the presiding officer. The Labour Court has the same power of a Civil Court. The proceeding of the Labour Court shall not be questioned on the ground that it is not properly constituted.

1.What is Data privacy and how to protect it?

Over last couple of years there has been a substantial increase in the amount of data that is generated through the usage of various electronic devices and applications. Today’s businesses derive a substantial value by analysing the ‘big data’ and often determine their business strategies based on such analysis. While there is no denying the business efficiency involved, the burning question is ‘do individuals have a control over the manner in which information pertaining to them is accessed and processed by others. Privacy is the right to be left alone or to be free from misuse or abuse of one’s personality. The right of privacy is the right to be free from unwarranted publicity, to live a life of seclusion, and to live without unwarranted interference by the public in matters with which the public is not necessarily concerned.
Article 21 of the Constitution of India provides that “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”. However, the Constitution of India does not specifically recognize ‘right to privacy’ as a fundamental right.
The Information and Technology Act,2000 and Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Information) Rules, 2011, provides for the guidelines for data protection in India.

2.Registration of NGOs in India:
Registration of NGO in India:

One of the ways in which an NGO can be registered is Trust or more commonly called Charitable trust. Trust is a legal entity created by the “trustor” or “settlor” who transfers the assets to the second party or “trustee” for the benefit of the third party or “beneficiary”. Trusts are formed to help and support the deprived sections of the society. Any group of individuals can register a trust and in India as such there are no specific laws to govern the public trust, however, some states like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have their own Public Trust Act.
A society is an entity that can be created by a group of individuals united in their cause for promoting science, arts, literature, social welfare and useful information. In addition, societies work for creating military orphan funds, maintaining public museum and libraries
Societies are governed by the Societies Registration Act, 1860. They must be registered with the respective state Registrar of Societies to be eligible for tax exemption.
Section 8 Companies
A Section 8 company is similar to a trust and society. The objectives of a Section 8 Companies are to promote arts, science, commerce, sports, social welfare, religion, charity and environmental protection. They are registered under the Companies Act, 2013 for charitable purpose. They have better credibility among government bodies, donors and other stakeholders.
In India, anybody is free to do social activities without forming an association or organization. But when an individual wants to create a group that involves volunteers, activities, and resources, it becomes important to have proper management in place. To run such companies, trusts and Societies in the correct manner, a certain set of rules need to be followed.

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